​Classification of bone grafting

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In the implant surgery, if the bone volume is insufficient, bone grafting is required to increase the bone volume to ensure the completion of the implant and the outcome of the restoration.


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Sources of bone grafting materials

Mechanism of bone graft materials


Sources of bone grafting materials

The most common classification of bone graft is distinguished by its source, which is divided into autologous bone, allogeneic bone, xenogeneic bone and bone graft substitute.

1. Autologous bone: Bone graft material is taken from the patient itself, either from bone fragments collected during preparation for implant surgery or from other parts of the body. Studies have shown that autologous bone has the osteogenic ability and also avoids rejection reactions.

2. Allogeneic bone: from other healthy donors with fresh frozen bone and bone marrow, lyophilized bone, and decalcified lyophilized bone. The advantages over autologous bone are the abundance of bone sources and the simplicity of the procedure, which eliminates the need for a separate incision for bone harvesting.

3. Xenogeneic bone: bone from other species. For example, after special treatment of calf bone, only the scaffold structure with inorganic components is left.

4. Bone graft substitute: hydroxyapatite, β-tricalcium phosphate, medical calcium sulfate, etc. These materials have good bioactivity and do not cause any inflammatory or rejection reactions.

bone graft

Mechanism of bone graft materials

According to the mechanism after transplantation, we can further classify the materials into two categories: slow-absorbing and fast-absorbing.

Slow-absorbing bone graft substitute block materials remain in the body for a long time or permanently after implantation, and the graft particles produce an osseointegration effect and are in direct contact with the newly generated bone tissue. Some of these materials are derived from the bone of other species with organic material removed or from synthetic materials (hydroxyapatite bone graft substitute). The bone graft material occupies a space in the body for a long time and acts as a scaffold for the new bone to grow.

These include β-tricalcium phosphate and medical calcium sulfate, which can be rapidly absorbed and degraded in the body (collagen bone graft substitutes). The mechanism by which fast-absorbing materials affect osteogenesis is the release of mineral (calcium, phosphorus, etc.) during the degradation process, which are raw materials for osteogenesis and can be used directly for bone formation. β-tricalcium phosphate can positively affect early osteogenesis but will delay the maturation of new bone to some extent after 2 weeks of implantation. This may be because some of the unrestored material acts as a physical barrier to new bone ingrowth; it may also be due to the high local ion concentration caused by continuous degradation, which in turn hurts osteogenesis.

The synthetic collagen bone graft substitute is a combination of pure type I collagen and ß-TCP by mimicking the composition and structure of human cancellous bone. When it is implanted in bone defect, the collagen will attract bone marrow cells and become stroma of stem cells and carrier of growth factors, which will be osteoconductive, osteoinductive and osteogenic.


The synthetic collagen bone graft substitute is a bone void filler for fractures, spinal fusion surgery, osteoma surgery and craniofacial reconstruction. The degradation time is about 3 months which match the time of new bone formation.

Guangdong Victory Biotech Co., Ltd manufactures a wide range of collagen bone graft substitutes products, if you would like to know more, please contact us.

Victory Biotech Co., Ltd has been focusing on,

1. the atelocollagen raw materials with low endotoxin and complete triple helix structure.

2. the medical grade type I collagen raw materials and semi-finished products.

3. the purification technologies of collagen and the processing of advanced medical products.

Victory Biotech has developed a full range of collagen products, such as powder, sheet, sponge, plug, membrane, cream, slurry and solution, which can be applied to,

a) Implantable medical devices:

Hemostatic and wound dressing, chronic ulcer wound dressing, GTR membrane for oral/bone tissue regeneration, Dura mater and anti-adhesion products.

b) Skincare products:

Collagen essence, freeze-dried collagen crystals, which can be used to the skin moisturizing and repai


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